The lamps used in the operating room are conditioned to provide optimal lighting during the operation process; the surgical light is responsible for illuminating the operating area and thus providing an excellent visualization to the surgeon during the surgical intervention.
There are a wide variety of operating room lamp models that provide brilliant light; a homogeneous light that does not generate excessive heat and does not affect the patient or the surgical assistance team, allowing the efficient performance of the surgery and avoiding complications.
Types of operating room lamps
- Examination lamps: this type of lamp must be equipped with at least one halogen lamp and with a light filtering system. The models are: rolling, wall, and ceiling.
- Auxiliary operating room lamps: these are lamps designed to support the surgical lamps and provide better illumination to the surgical area. There are rolling and ceiling models.
- Surgical light: consists of a main dome and a satellite dome placed in a ceiling suspension that provides immediate balanced balancing of the domes in all positions of use, for any surgical specialty. This type distinguishes lamps for small and medium surgery from 30,000 to 50,000 LUX, and lamps for large surgery from 60,000 to 100,000 LUX.
- Illuminated headlights and loupes – Provide brightness and comfort, plus they can be worn so the light follows the surgeon’s attention.
These lamps have two types of lighting, in terms of reflection system and light filtering system. These two types are: the sciatic one that has a light bulb, katathermic filter, condenser, multiple mirrors, without forgetting the light beams; and the dichroic one that consists of a bulb, a reflector with dichroic treatment, light beams, and infrareds. The sciatic in comparison to the dichroic is more effective in avoiding shadows and produces less heat.
Operating room lamps are also classified according to the light source they have. As far as we can distinguish:
- Halogen Lamp: these lamps are designed with quartz glass and add halogen gas creating a regeneration cycle that prevents blackening of the glass, caused by the constant luminous flux. It is an incandescent lamp that emits an intense and bright light.
- LED lamps: works with light-emitting diodes as a light source, with electro-luminosity, which is a process where a semiconductor is directly polarized, thus emitting a light, it offers a bright light without shadow. The energy band of the semiconductor determines the color of the light
- Halogen-free incandescent lamps: this uses an inert gas as the light source.
- Gas discharges: in this lamp it subjects a gas with electric discharges, causing an excitation that radiates and emits a very white light.
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